Nearly half of 557 respondents in a survey of Dutch Jews said they were afraid of identifying as such.
Of the respondents, 43 percent said they take active steps to hide their Jewish identity, such as wear a hat over their kippah or hide Star of David pendants.
Many respondents cited their perception of a rise in the prevalence of anti-Semitic sentiment, with 48 percent saying they avoid situations where they suspect they may be exposed to anti-Semitic reactions.
Other key findings:
- 52 percent of respondents say antisemitism on the street has become more common; 59 percent say it extends also to media and 82 percent see it rising online
- 34 percent said they had experienced anti-Semitic remarks directed against them; of those, 89 percent said that those remarks were connected to Israel.
- 11 percent of respondents said they had experienced anti-Semitic violence directed against them. Nearly three-quarters of respondents said they heard anti-Semitic jokes, featuring stereotypes about Jews. Other jokes involved the Holocaust. One respondent said a neighbor once told him that the only reason the respondents is living in the Netherlands is “because they forgot to gas” his family.